Glossary of Industry Terms
Active slip plane
A crystallographic plane of atoms in which dislocations move with greater ease.


Alloy
A metal combined with at least one other chemical element to enhance or modify the pure metal's properties.


Anodes
Active metals used to protect other metals from corrosion by attracting the current and therefore oxidation reactions occur on active metal.


Casting
A molding process consisting of pouring molten metal into a mold, allowing it to cool and harden, and removing the cast part from the mold.


Creep
Elongation of a material over time - typically at elevated temperatures.


Dross
Oxided material on the top of a fluid open bath of melted magnesium, usually not a problem with cover gas enclosed dossing furnaces. Only associated with open melt furnaces using a flux to control oxidation.


Ductility
A measure of a material's ability to undergo deformation before fracturing, represented by the percent elongation or percent of area reduction.


Electrical Conductivity
A material's ability to conduct electricity - the reciprocal of electrical resistivity.


Enthalpy
A thermodynamic property equivalent to the sum of two values; the internal energy and the product of pressure and volume. Typically expressed as a change in enthalpy or the energy absorbed or emitted during a phase transformation.


Entropy
A measure of the system's thermal energy as well as the disorder within a material.


Fatigue
The progressive brittle cracking that occurs in materials under repetitive stresses prior to failure.


Feedstock
Material fed into a die for processing.


Forgings
Materials shaped through compression in various tools and dies.


Foundry
Manufacturing factory or workshop that casts metal products.


Fracture toughness
A measure of a material's resistance to fracture when a fracture is present.


Grighard reaction
Reaction occuring when the bonding electrons are shifted away from magnesium in a carbon magnesium bond to form a covalent bond that is strongly polar.


Hexagonal close packed (HCP)
The crystal structure of pure magnesium in which the unit cell has hexagonal geometry formed by stacked, closely-packed planes of atoms.


Ingot
Solid metal intended for further processing such as rolling, casting and forging.


Modulus of elasticity
Also known as Young's modulus, it is the ratio of stress to strain in the elastic region of a material in tension.


Mole
The amount of a material or substance equivalent to 6.023 x 1023 atoms or molecules.


Process scrap
Materials that are left over following manufacturing of a part — can be either intentional or unintentional remnants.


Shot
Small metal balls used as feedstock.


Slurry
A semi-liquid mixture consisting of both particulate and liquidous material.


Specific Heat
Quantity of heat required to raise a unit mass of material's temperature a particular amount, typically one degree.


Strain hardening coefficient
Symbolized by n in the true stress-true strain curve. A higher coefficient represents a greater strain-hardening capacity of the material — the more the material is strained, the harder and stronger it would become.


Substrate
Primary material onto which other materials are applied or built up onto.


Swarf
Chips and pieces of material that occur in metalworking processes.


Thermal conductivity
A measure of a materials ability to conduct heat.


Vibration damping capacity
A material's relative ability to absorb vibration.


Wrought products
Products that are formed by another process other than casting. Can be machined from the solid, extruded or forged.


Yield strength
Amount of stress required to produce a small, specified amount of plastic strain on a material.



Site References

Alloying element-process-effect table

    1. Kalpakjian, S., and Schmid, S.R., 2010, "Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, "Prentice Hall, Singapore, pp. 157-158-305.
    2. Callister, W.D., Jr., 2007, "Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction, "John Wiley & Sons, York, PA, pp. 377-378.
    3. Abbott, Trevor B., Easton, Mark A., and Cáceres, Carlos H., 2003, "Handbook of Mechanical Alloy Design," CRC Press, pp. 487-538.
    4. Gupta, M., and Sharon, N. M. L., "Magnesium, Magnesium Alloys, and Magnesium Composites," pp. 40-42.

Fabrication and Finishing

    1. AZoM, 2013, "Chromate-Free Self-Healing Pretreatment for Magnesium-NANOMYTE®PT-60 from NEI Corporation," 2013(July 6).
    2. Fleming, S., 2012, "An Overview of Magnesium Based Alloys for Aerospace and Automotive Applications".

Magnesium Lifecycle Analysis

    1. Ehrenberger, S., and Friedrich, H. E., "The IMA Study on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Magnesium."
    2. Du, J., Han, W., and Peng, Y., 2010, "Life Cycle Greenhouse Gases, Energy and Cost Assessment of Automobiles using Magnesium from Chinese Pidgeon Process," Journal of Cleaner Production,18(2) pp. 112-119.

Recycling Magnesium

    1. Magnesium-Elektron "Recycling Economics," 2013 (June 22) pp. 3.
    2. Tzamtzis, S., Zhang, H., Xia, M., 2011, "Recycling of High Grade Die Casting AM Series Magnesium Scrap with the Melt Conditioned High Pressure Die Casting (MC-HPDC) Process," Material Science and Engineering: A, 528(6) pp. 2664-2669.
    3. HU, M., JI, Z., CHEN, X., 2012, "Solid-State Recycling of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy Chips," Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 22, Supplement 1(0) pp. s68-s73.
    4. Fechner, D., Blawert, C., Hort, N., 2013, "Development of a Magnesium Secondary Alloy System for Mixed Magnesium Post-Consumer Scrap," Materials Science and Engineering: A, 576(0) pp. 222-230.

Magnesium Applications

    1. Askeland, D.R., and Fulay, P.P., 2010, "Essentials of Materials Science and Engineering: SI Edition," Cengage Learning, Connecticut, pp. 444.
    2. Raymer, D.P., 2006, "Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach," American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Virgina, USA, pp. 416.
    3. Gupta, M., and Sharon, N.M.L., "Magnesium, Magnesium Alloys, and Magnesium Composites," John Wiley & Sons, pp. 1-21

Magnesium Basics

    1. Kalpakjian, S., and Schmid, S.R., 2010, "Manufacturing Engineering and Technology," Prentice Hall, Singapore, pp. 157-158-305.
    2. Callister, W.D., Jr., 2007, "Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction," John Wiley & Sons, York, PA, pp. 377-378.
    3. Askeland, D.R., and Fulay, P.P., 2010, "Essentials of Materials Science and Engineering: SI Edition," Cengage Learning, Connecticut, pp. 444.
    4. Morgo Magnesium Ltd., "Magnesium..." 2013(May, 7) pp. 1 http://magnesiumsquare.com.
    5. Wulandari, W., Brooks, G.A., Rhamdhani, M.A., "Magnesium: Current and Alternative Production Routes".

Synthesis Techniques and Processing

    1. Kalpakjian, S., and Schmid, S.R., 2010, "Manufacturing Engineering and Technology," Prentice Hall, Singapore, pp. 157-158-305.
    2. Gupta, M., and Sharon, N.M.L., "Magnesium, Magnesium Alloys, and Magnesium Composites," John Wiley & Sons, pp. 1-21
    3. Gray, J. E., and Luan, B., 2002, "Protective Coatings on Magnesium and its Alloys — a Critical Review," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 336(1–2) pp. 88-113.

Typical Magnesium Alloys

    1. Fleming, S., 2012, "An Overview of Magnesium Based Alloys for Aerospace and Automotive Applications".

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